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Common Cybersecurity Terminology – Used By Hackers

Common Cybersecurity Terminology
Common Cybersecurity Terminology

Cybersecurity has grown to be a top issue for both individuals and businesses in the current digital era. It is more crucial than ever to have a firm grasp of popular cybersecurity jargon given the frequency and sophistication of cyber attacks. This information can assist in defending you and your business against different cyberattacks and security lapses.

We’ll give a quick explanation of some of the most prevalent cybersecurity jargon you could run against in this post. This covers, among other things, vulnerabilities, firewalls, phishing, and malware. We will also discuss the significance of comprehending these words and how doing so may assist you in making decisions regarding your online security.

This article attempts to provide you with a fundamental grasp of cybersecurity terminology and its significance in today’s digital environment, whether you are a business owner, IT expert, or just someone who utilizes technology regularly. So let’s get started and examine these fundamental ideas as a group.

Common Cybersecurity Terminology


The term “malware” refers to software that is intended to damage or exploit computer systems. A large category of harmful software known as malware includes viruses, worms, trojan horses, ransomware, and spyware.

Types of malware:

  1. Computer software known as a virus can multiply and propagate from one machine to another.
  2. Worm: An autonomous computer software that replicates itself and spreads over a network without user input.
  3. Trojan: A software that gives the impression of being helpful but is meant to do bad things.
  4. Malware that encrypts a victim’s files and demands money in return for the decryption key is known as ransomware.
  5. Spyware is a category of software that discreetly gathers user data and transmits it to a distant server.


In 2017, the WannaCry ransomware assault hit over 200,000 systems in 150 different countries.

Iranian nuclear facilities were attacked by the Stuxnet malware in 2010.

From compromised PCs, the Zeus malware harvests banking passwords and user information.


An example of a social engineering assault is phishing, in which the attacker tries to convince the victim to divulge private data like passwords or credit card details. Phishing assaults are frequently conducted over email or instant messaging, but they can also take place over the phone or through social media.

Types of phishing:

  1. Spear phishing is a type of targeted phishing assault that is made specifically for one person or group of people.
  2. Clone phishing is a sort of phishing assault in which an authentic email or webpage is cloned and altered to obtain personal data.
  3. High-ranking officials or other valuable targets are the focus of a particular kind of phishing assault called whaling.


  1. Users of Microsoft Office 365 were the subject of a phishing effort in 2020 that used a phony Google reCAPTCHA page to collect their login information.
  2. Customers of American Express were the subject of a phishing attack in 2019 that used a phony login page to collect their credit card information.
  3. Employees of the Democratic National Committee were the subject of a spear phishing attempt in 2018 that sought to collect private political data.
Common Cybersecurity Terminology


A firewall is a piece of network security hardware that monitors all incoming and outgoing network traffic and uses a set of security rules to either allow or disallow it. Networks must be protected from unauthorized access and harmful traffic with the help of firewalls, which can be either hardware- or software-based.

Types of firewalls:

  1. A firewall that filters traffic based on the source, destination, and ports of network packets is known as a packet-filtering firewall.
  2. Stateful firewall: A firewall that keeps track of the status of network connections and makes judgments about which packets to allow or block based on that information.
  3. A firewall operating at the OSI model’s application layer that may base judgments on particular application protocols is known as an “application-layer firewall.”


  1. A common hardware-based firewall used in business networks is the Cisco ASA firewall.
  2. Small business and residential networks frequently employ the open-source pfSense firewall software.
  3. A software-based firewall included with the Windows operating system is the Windows Firewall.


To preserve the secrecy of data, the plaintext is transformed into ciphertext through the process of encryption. Only the correct key or password will unlock the ciphertext. Sensitive data, including financial transactions, private information, and official correspondence, are frequently protected via encryption.

Types of encryption

  1. A kind of encryption in which the same key is used for both encryption and decryption is known as symmetric-key encryption.
  2. Asymmetric-key encryption: A form of encryption where the encryption and decryption keys are distinct.
  3. Data of any size may be converted into a fixed-size output using the hashing technique, which is frequently employed to ensure the accuracy of data.


  • A popular symmetric-key encryption technique is called the Advanced Encryption Standard (AES).
  • One widely used asymmetric-key encryption method is RSA.
  • Data integrity checks often employ the SHA-256 hashing technique.


A vulnerability is a weak point or fault in a system that an attacker may use to obtain access without authorization or carry out malevolent acts. Software, hardware, or even human behavior may be vulnerable. Cybersecurity must include both vulnerability identification and patching.

Types of vulnerability:

  1. Software flaw: A flaw in software that an attacker may use to compromise the system.
  2. Hardware flaw: A flaw in the hardware that an attacker may use to undermine the system.
  3. A vulnerability that occurs as a result of human action, such as giving up passwords or falling for phishing schemes, is known as a social engineering vulnerability.


  1. The OpenSSL cryptographic software library’s Heartbleed flaw made it possible for hackers to obtain private keys and other sensitive data.
  2. The CPU flaws Spectre and Meltdown made it possible for hackers to obtain private data from other processes.
  3. In 2017, a flaw in the Apache Struts web application framework led to the Equifax data leak.

Why Understanding Cybersecurity Terminology is Important

Cybersecurity is now more important than ever since technology is continually developing. Understanding common cybersecurity jargon is crucial to remaining secure online given the rise in cyberattacks and data leaks. Understanding cybersecurity language is crucial for the following reasons:

Knowing the dangers and hazards

Individuals and companies may better comprehend the dangers and threats they face by learning cybersecurity language. They can use this information to guide the required actions they take to safeguard themselves from these dangers and hazards.

Interacting with IT and security experts

Individuals and companies may engage with IT and security experts more successfully by being familiar with cybersecurity lingo. They will be better able to comprehend the security measures in place as well as any potential weaknesses as a result.

Making wise choices

Common Cybersecurity Terminology

Knowing the terms used in cybersecurity vocabulary enables both people and companies to make knowledgeable choices. They could be able to select better secure passwords, employ encryption to safeguard critical information, and spot phishing efforts, for instance.

Being secure online

To keep secure online is perhaps the most crucial reason to grasp cybersecurity jargon. Individuals and corporations may take the required precautions to safeguard themselves against cyberattacks and data breaches by learning the terminology as well as the dangers and hazards.

In conclusion, cybersecurity jargon is crucial in the current digital era. Individuals and companies may better defend themselves from cyber-attacks and take educated decisions to be safe online by learning key cybersecurity words.


We’ve discussed some of the most popular cybersecurity terms in this post, such as malware, phishing, firewalls, encryption, and vulnerabilities. Here is a summary:

  • Malware is software created with the intention of damaging or abusing a computer system.
  • Phishing is a sort of cyberattack that connives to get victims to divulge personal information.
  • A network security mechanism called a firewall keeps track of and regulates both incoming and outgoing network traffic.
  • Information is transformed into an unintelligible code by the process of encryption, which requires a secret key.
  • An attackable weakness or defect in a system is known as a vulnerability.

As we covered in the last section, there are several reasons why understanding these concepts is crucial:

  • Knowing the dangers and hazards
  • interacting with IT and security experts
  • making wise choices
  • being secure online

In the modern digital era, it is important to comprehend popular cybersecurity jargon. Individuals and organizations may better defend themselves against cyber attacks and decide how to maintain their cybersecurity by being familiar with these words. To keep secure online, constantly be on the lookout and implement the appropriate security measures.

This blog post will tell you some common terms in ethical hacking and cyber security. These common terms are widely used in the hacker’s community and you will definitely hear these terms.

As we know that terminology is the breakdown of terms and their usage. The continuously transforming world of cyber security can leave you longing for an understanding of today modern threats due to a need for cyber security vocabulary words.

So if you are a beginner and want to learn Common cybersecurity terminology used by hackers. Then I recommend you to watch this video tutorial till the end and understand everything properly.

Note: This video is in the Hindi Language.


Frequently Asked Questions (FAQs)

Q: What is Common Cybersecurity Terminology?

A: The word “common cybersecurity terminology” refers to the accepted phrases and ideas employed in the field of cybersecurity to describe various forms of cyberattacks, security precautions, and vulnerabilities.

Q: Why is it important to understand Common Cybersecurity Terminology?

A: To defend oneself against online attacks and make wise cybersecurity decisions, it’s crucial to comprehend common cybersecurity terminology. You can interact with IT and security experts more effectively and have a better understanding of the dangers and hazards you face by becoming familiar with this terminology.

Q: What are some examples of Common Cybersecurity Terminology?

A few instances of often-used terms in cybersecurity are malware, phishing, firewalls, encryption, and vulnerabilities.

Q: What is malware?

A computer program called malware is intended to damage or abuse a computer system. It comprises Trojan horses, worms, viruses, and other harmful software.

Q: What is phishing?

A sort of cyberattack known as phishing involves social engineering to persuade victims to divulge personal information like login credentials or financial information.

Q: What is a firewall?

A network security system that monitors and regulates both incoming and outgoing network traffic is called a firewall. It may aid in preventing illegal access to a system or network.

Q: What is encryption?

A: Information is transformed into an unintelligible code by the process of encryption, which requires a secret key. It can aid in preventing unwanted access to sensitive data.

Akash Tiwari

People know me as "Bronze Hacker" on Social Media. I'm an Ethical Hacker, Penetration Tester, Content Creator, Digital Marketer, Technology Lover, and Passionate Learner.

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