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Basic Linux Command Line Tutorial for Beginners – 2023

Linux command line tutorial for beginners
Linux Command Line Tutorial For Beginners

Servers, supercomputers, and embedded systems all use the free and open-source Linux operating system. The bulk of the world’s supercomputers run on it, and it is the most widely used operating system for web servers. The adaptability, dependability, and security of Linux are responsible for its popularity. The learning curve, however, can be intimidating for new users, particularly when it comes to utilizing the command line interface.

Despite this, any novice who wants to get the most out of the operating system must become proficient with the Linux command line. We’ll cover the fundamental commands for browsing the file system, managing files and directories, using text editors, managing users, checking system information, and networking in this blog post’s basic Linux command line tutorial for beginners. Beginners will leave this lesson with a firm understanding of the fundamental commands of the Linux command line and the tools necessary to explore and master more complex commands.

Getting started with the Linux command line

A potent tool for dealing with the operating system is the Linux command line interface, usually referred to as the terminal. While being the first scary, the command line gives users extensive control over the system. Following are some fundamental instructions for accessing the file system in Linux, along with a brief introduction to the terminal and command-line interfaces:

The Linux terminal and command line interface are explained:

The terminal is a text-based user interface that lets users issue instructions to the operating system. The system will carry out any commands entered by users into the terminal. Users can enter commands at the command prompt in the terminal to get the system’s response.

Linux terminal opening: 

To open the terminal in Linux, press Ctrl + Alt + T on your keyboard or look for it in the programs menu.

Basic file system navigational commands:

  • cd: The current working directory can be changed using this command. For instance, the Documents folder will become the working directory when you type cd /home/user/Documents.
  • The ls command displays a list of the current directory’s contents. The ls command, for instance, will list every file and folder in the current directory.
  • PWD: The current working directory is printed by this command. Pwd, for instance, displays the whole path to the current directory.

The basis for using Linux’s file system is this set of commands. Beginners may rapidly get at ease using the Linux command line and begin studying more complex commands by becoming proficient with these fundamental instructions.

Linux command line tutorial for beginners

File and directory management

After you feel confident using the file system, you may begin managing files and directories by using a variety of commands. Creating, deleting, copying, relocating, and renaming files and directories may all be done using the following key commands:

Adding and removing folders and files:

  • touch: Use this command to make a brand-new, empty file. For instance, touching “example.txt” will generate a new file with that name.
  • With the mkdir command, a new directory may be created. For instance, the command mkdir new folder will create a new folder with the name “new folder”.
  • The rm command can be used to remove files and directories. for further information. To remove folders and their contents recursively, use the -r option with rm. For instance, typing rm -r new folder will remove the whole contents of the folder with that name.

Copying and moving files and directories:

  • The cp command is used to copy files and directories.
  • To copy a file to the Documents folder, use the command cp file.txt /home/user/Documents.
  • Move files and directories with the mv command. Move the file “file.txt” to the Documents folder, for instance, by typing mv file.txt /home/user/Documents.

Renaming files and directories:

  • mv: You may rename files and directories with this command. For instance, if you type mv file.txt new file.txt, “file.txt” will be changed to “new file.txt”. Use the mv command to relocate a directory to a different place and give it a new name.

Those who understand these commands may use the Linux command line to efficiently handle files and folders.

Text editors in Linux

For generating and editing files on the Linux command line, text editors are a need. Text-based files, including configuration files, scripts, and code, can be created and modified by users. These are some fundamental instructions for text editing and an introduction to various well-known Linux text editors:

Getting started with text editors

  • nano: Nano is a straightforward and simple-to-use text editor. Basic editing tools like copy and paste are available, and syntax highlighting is supported.
  • vi: Vi is a more complex text editor that delivers more powerful capabilities for advanced users. Although there is a longer learning curve, it is extremely flexible and effective.
Linux command line tutorial for beginners

Text editors are used to creating and modifying files. To create a new file in a text editor, just input the file name and the command you want to use. For instance, at the terminal, type nano new file.txt to create a new file with the name “new file.txt” using nano.

Basic text editing commands:

  • Use the arrow keys to navigate the text with the cursor.
  • Enter text by beginning to type. Wherever the pointer is, the text will be added.
  • Use the backspace or delete keys to remove content.
  • To save changes, use the keyboard shortcut Ctrl + O for nano or:w for vi.
  • To exit the text editor, use the keyboard shortcut Ctrl + X for nano or:q for vi.

To get started with creating and editing text files on the Linux command line, these fundamental commands ought to be sufficient. You may master more complex commands and customization choices as you get more accustomed to text editors to enhance your workflow.


Users may connect to distant servers and test network connections using Linux’s robust networking features. The following important commands can be used to test network connectivity and establish connections with distant servers:

Network connection testing

  • ping: By sending packets to a target host and timing the response, this command is used to verify network connectivity. Pinging, for instance, will transmit packets to the Google server and display the response time.
  • Ifconfig: This command is used to verify the network interface’s IP address. Ifconfig, for instance, will show the IP address of the active network interface.

Linking to distant servers

  • SSH: This command establishes a secure network connection to distant servers. SSH username@server address, for instance, will establish a connection to the server using the supplied login and IP address.

The remote server’s password must be entered when requested.

Those who know these networking commands may connect to remote servers and handle network problems with ease.

We all know that the Linux operating system is best for ethical hackers and programmers. But to use the Linux operating system you have to learn a few things. The most important thing you should learn before using Linux is its commands. 

Linux command is a special keyword you can use in the terminal to act. Most commands are tiny title applications that were installed on the system with the rest of the operating system.

You can watch this video tutorial on the Linux command line for beginners. This video is created for absolute beginners, who don’t know about Linux commands at all. After watching this video you’ll have a basic idea of how to use a Linux terminal and its commands.

So, watch this video till the end and learn everything properly.

Note: This video is in the Hindi Language.


Frequently Asked Questions (FAQs)

Q: What is Linux, and why is it significant?

A: Linux is a widely used open-source operating system for servers and other hardware. Its stability, security, and adaptability are what make it significant.

Q: Why should I learn the Linux command line?

A: The Linux command line is an excellent tool that gives users the ability to do jobs faster and more accurately. Your productivity will rise and your knowledge of how computers operate will deepen as a result of learning the Linux command line.

Q: What are some basic commands for navigating the file system in Linux?

A: The basic commands cd to change directories, ls to display the files and folders in the current directory, and pwd to print the current working directory are some of the ones you may use to navigate the file system in Linux.

Q: How can I create and delete files and directories in Linux?

A: You may use the touch command and the file’s name to create a new file. You may use the mkdir command and the directory’s name to create a new directory. You may use the rm command with the file or directory name to remove a file or directory.

Q: How can I connect to a remote server in Linux?

A secure connection to the remote server may be made using the ssh command, username, and IP address.

Q: What are some popular text editors in Linux?

A: Nano and vi are two common text editors on Linux. Vi is a more sophisticated text editor with a steeper learning curve than Nano, which is a straightforward and user-friendly text editor.


We’ve covered several fundamental Linux command-line functions in this article that new users may use to edit text, manage files and directories, browse the file system, and verify network connectivity. Users may do tasks more quickly and have more influence over their systems by becoming proficient with these commands.

Review of the fundamental Linux command-line commands:

The basic commands for exploring the file system are cd, ls, and pwd.

Commands for adding, removing, copying, relocating, and renaming files and directories include touch, mkdir, rm, cp, and mv.

Prominent Linux text editors include Nano and vi.

Commands for determining network connectivity and connecting to distant servers include ping, ifconfig, and ssh.

The Linux command line is encouraged to be learned and explored further:

Although some of the fundamental Linux command-line commands are covered in this article, there is still a lot to discover and discover. The more you know about the Linux command line, the more you can do with it to improve the efficiency of your work. You’ll be astonished at what you can do with the Linux command line, so keep exploring and learning!

Akash Tiwari

People know me as "Bronze Hacker" on Social Media. I'm an Ethical Hacker, Penetration Tester, Content Creator, Digital Marketer, Technology Lover, and Passionate Learner.

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